© 2018 by The Vortex Foundation

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    WORKING PAPERS

    Tuesday, October 15, 2019

    Este documento consta de 4 partes, en las que se identifica y analiza la red establecida con sobornos o actos de corrupción propiciados por la empresa Odebrecht. Luego de esta introducción, la segunda sección es un recuento de hechos recientes de corrupción de la red “Lava Jato Colombia”, principalmente (i) aquellos relacionados con los proyectos de infraestructura conocidos como Ruta del Sol II y el Contrato Tunjuelo-Canoas-Río Bogotá, (ii) otros consistentes en el financiamiento de campañas electorales y partidos políticos en los que se presume que participó la empresa Odebrecht, y (iii) otros que presuntamente involucran a uno de los grupos empresariales más importantes en Colombia, que fue socio de la empresa Odebrecht. En la segunda sección también se exponen y analizan las principales decisiones judiciales, incluyendo sentencias, acontecidas en el marco de casos relacionados con la corrupción propiciada por la empresa Odebrecht en Colombia. La tercera sección es un análisis de las características de la estructura “Lava Jato” Colombia. En la cuarta sección se presentan algunas conclusiones.

    Wednesday, July 24, 2019

    Este documento consta de cuatro secciones que incluyen la introducción. La segunda sección es una descripción de los nodos/agentes e interacciones que conforman la súper-estructura. La tercera sección es un análisis de dos indicadores de centralidad que informan acerca de la operación de la súper-estructura, del papel desempeñado por los nodos/agentes más importantes de la red, y del tipo de relaciones desarrolladas para su funcionamiento. En la cuarta y última sección se discuten algunas conclusiones.[1]

    No. 31. Una génesis de la ilegalidad: Corrupción, Captura del Estado, Cooptación institucional y Macro-corrupción

    Luis Jorge Garay Salamanca

    Wednesday, January 01, 2020

    El propósito de este documento es analizar la problemática societal de la génesis de la ilegalidad desde la perspectiva de la corrupción y cooptación institucional en sentido amplio, partiendo de la caracterización de sus raíces y consecuencias determinantes, con miras a dilucidar estadios genéricos distintivos del proceso de profundización y complejización de la corrupción según: (i) su naturaleza (de casual/esporádica a sistémica); (ii) la identidad (legales, ilegales y grises/opacos, públicos y privados) y la modalidad de participación (individuos aislados a grupos organizados actuando estratégica y coordinadamente en red, por ejemplo) de los agentes sociales intervinientes; (iii) los medios utilizados (desde el soborno a la extorsión, la coacción y hasta al uso de la violencia); (iv) las instancias y niveles espaciales de administración pública interferidas, permeadas, capturadas o cooptadas; (v) el ámbito y perdurabilidad de propósitos predominantes; (vi) las consecuencias estructurales sobre el (des-)ordenamiento de la sociedad, y (vii) las implicaciones en términos tanto de la heurística conceptual, analítica y metodológica para aprehender con propiedad cada estadio diferencial, como de la política pública para prevenirlo y confrontarlo efectivamente en campos que incluyen el derecho penal, civil, administrativo, y la investigación judicial.

    No. 30. The “Lava Jato” Network: Policy Insights for Confronting Transnational Corruption

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán Luis Jorge Garay-Salamanca Guillermo Macias Diana Santos

    Monday, April 30, 2018

    This brief document contains the policy insights and recommendations to confronting transnational corruption. The first part is an introduction. The second part describes the two main objectives to achieve in the confrontation of macro-corruption transnational networks: (i) Understanding and Confronting Decentralized and Transnational Networks of Corruption, and (ii) Confronting Money Laundering Related to Corruption through Real Time Data Analysis and Social Network Analysis of Illicit Financial Flows,. The third and last part includes some policy insights and guidelines to policy makers and authorities. 
     

    Luis Jorge Garay, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Guillermo Macías, Diana Santos C, Nathalia Guerra

    Monday, April 30, 2018

    This document has five sections. The first part is this introduction; the second is a description of the methodology and the concepts related to Social Network Analysis and additional protocols of analysis, which is the methodological approach herein applied; the third is a brief presentation of the criminal structure referenced here as “Petrobras Criminal Network”, as well as the sources gathered and processed to model the structure; the fourth is an analysis of the characteristics of the criminal structure, which includes a description of the types of nodes/agents, the types of interactions established, and the nodes/agents concentrating direct interactions and the capacit to arbitrate resources across the network; and the fifth part includes conclusions related to the characteristics of the analyzed network.

    Luis Jorge Garay, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Guillermo Macías, Diana Santos

    Monday, April 30, 2018

    Este breve documento explora cómo las empresas cartelizadas bajo el nombre de "El club" manipularon los procesos de contratación pública y sobornaron a altos funcionarios y políticos con el fin de mantener activas las operaciones criminales. 

    Luis Jorge Garay, Eduardo Salcedo, Guillermo Macías, Diana Santos

    Monday, April 30, 2018

    Este breve documento reconstruye algunas de las estrategias desarrolladas por el esquema criminal "Lava Jato", para el lavado de activos. Entre estas: la simulación de contratos  y prestamos, las transferencias a cuentas extranjeras, los pagos en efefectivo, el cambio de divisas "dollar cape"; y la financiación oficial y no oficial de campañas y partidos políticos, 

    Luis Jorge Garay Salamanca

    Monday, March 05, 2018

    En documento de investigación "Sobre la problemática de la propiedad y el uso de la tierra en un contexto de usufructo del poder y la violencia, como en Colombia" Luis Jorge Garay Salamanca, nuestro Director Científico, analiza el problema de la propiedad y uso de la tierra y la conflictividad territorial en Colombia, retomando debates de economía política y enmarcándolos en la realidad de la globalización capitalista actual, consecuente con una competencia de capitales nacionales y transnacionales por el acaparamiento de tierras (suelo y subsuelo) a escala cada vez más internacionalizada.

    No. 23. Human Trafficking Networks: A case from Bulgaria

    Georgi Petrunov, Nikolay Yanev, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Wednesday, November 15, 2017

    For various reasons explained in the previous documents, such as the geographical location, the intense criminal and corrupt activity, and the economic pressures on the low-income population, Bulgaria is a hotspot for Trafficking in Human Beings (“THB”) for sexual exploitation. Bearing this in mind, this document is the analysis of the structure a complex criminal network that trafficked women from Bulgaria to wealthy countries in the European Union. Two situations characterize the criminal structure analyzed herein: The fact that the “leader” of the criminal network was a public servant and the high amount of identified victims.

    This document has 4 parts. In the first part the methodology and concepts related to Social Network Analysis are presented. In the second part the case and the sources gathered and processed in this analysis are discusses. The third part includes the characteristics of the criminal structure: The types of nodes/agents, the interactions established and the nodes/agents concentrating direct interactions and the capacity to arbitrate resources. In the last part conclusions are presented and discussed.

    Georgi Petrunov, Nikolay Yanev

    Wednesday, January 01, 2020

    What's this item about? What makes it interesting? Write a catchy description to grab your audience's attention...

    Georgi Petrunov, Nikolay Yanev

    Wednesday, December 13, 2017

    The following text aims to give a brief introduction to the phenomenon of human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Bulgaria. It presents key data on the country and its black markets, making a specific stress on sex services. The information is structured around the following topics:

    (i) General economic, social and political context with respect to human trafficking.

    (ii) Quantitative data about trafficking for prostitution and sexual exploitation and related activities.

    (iii) Qualitative data about human trafficking for prostitution and sexual exploitation

    No. 20. The Illicit Pangolin Trade in Africa: Players, Networks and Cases

    Kimon de Greef

    Wednesday, January 01, 2020

    This report offers an overview of the major hotspots, key criminal players, and recent cases related to the poaching and illicit export of African Pangolins to Asia. The document has three parts. The first part is a description of pangolin poaching hotspots in Africa. The second part exposes some of the criminal players involved and recent cases in Africa and Asia. In the third part, some conclusions are discussed. 

    No. 19. Introduction to the Illicit Pangolin Trade in Africa

    Kimon de Greef, Khalil Goga

    Wednesday, January 01, 2020

    This document provides a general overview of pangolin trafficking and poaching, focusing on the illicit trade from Africa and Asia. The document has 6 parts. The first part is an introduction. The seconds part is an introduction to the main countries where Pangolin trafficking is observed in Africa and Asia. The third part is a presentation of the economic and political characteristics related to the countries involved. In the fourth and fifth part relevant quantitative and qualitative data is presented. In the sixth part conclusions are discussed.

    No. 18. The Northern Triangle Criminal Networks: Arms Trafficking Across Central America.

    Diana Santos, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán & Luis Jorge Garay

    Monday, November 13, 2017

    This document includes a model and analysis of a transnational criminal network that involves nodes/agents participating in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The document has 4 parts. In the first part it is presented the methodology and concepts related to Social Network Analysis. In the second part it is discussed the modeled judicial case and the sources gathered and analyzed. The third part includes characteristics of the modeled criminal structure, such as types of nodes/agents, interactions established and the nodes/agents with the highest indicators of direct centrality and betweenness. In the last section, conclusions are presented and discussed.

    No. 17. Firearms Trafficking: Central America.

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Diana Santos & Luis Jorge Garay

    Monday, November 13, 2017

    The aim of this paper is to characterize the traffic of firearms across Central America. The document has five sections. The first one is a background of Central American countries that are mainly related to this type of traffic. In the second section, trends related to main sources, hotspots, routes and the actors agents involved in the arms trafficking market in Central America are explained. The third part is a brief presentation of the main restrictions and regulations of firearms, ammunitions, explosives and other materials in the more affected zone by firearms traffickin, the northern triangle: Honduras, Guatemala and Salvador. The fourth part includes relevant cases related to firearms trafficking in the region. The fifth part includes conclusions.

    Estefanía López, Alain Awazi & Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Friday, January 13, 2017

    the subjects analyzed in the document are the commerce, fraud, and contraband, as well as mechanisms and agents at internal and external levels intervening in the trafficking of coltan. This document also examines the (i) key criminal agents and other activities relating to the traffic of the ore, (ii) hotspots and (iii) recent cases covered by media. 

    No. 16. Firearms Trafficking: Mexico-United States border.

    Diana Santos, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán & Luis Jorge Garay

    Monday, November 13, 2017

    The aim of this paper is to explain the global scale operation of firearms trafficking. The document conveys information about (i) the process of diversion of firearms, (ii) the actors usually involved in the illicit trade of guns, and (iii) the links of firearms trafficking with criminal networks. In the second part of the document these elements are explicit in the exposition of the Mexico-USA border situation of firearms trafficking, currently one of the most relevant hotspots for this criminal activity.

    No. 15. Introduction to Firearms Trafficking.

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Diana Santos & Luis Jorge Garay

    Monday, November 13, 2017

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the main characteristics of this illegal activity, related to the social, economic and politic background of the countries or regions involved in the trafficking of firearms. The document conveys information about (i) general background characteristics of some of the most involved countries or regions and (ii) relevant data about firearms trafficking in those territories.

    Diana Santos & Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Tuesday, June 20, 2017

    One of the most relevant and recent cases of organ trafficking took place in Pristina, Kosovo, in 2008, at the Medicus Clinic. With the purpose of understanding the structure of a criminal network focused in organs trafficking, in this document we present a model and analysis of the transnational criminal network that represents the Medicus specific case. The document has 4 parts. In the first part we present the methodology and concepts related to Social Network Analysis. In the second part we discuss the modeled judicial case and the sources gathered and analyzed. The third part includes characteristics of the modeled criminal structure, such as types of nodes/agents, interactions established and the nodes/agents with the highest indicators of direct centrality and betweenness. In the last section, conclusions are presented and discussed. 

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Diana Santos & Natalia Duarte

    Tuesday, June 20, 2017

    The aim of this document is to inform about the criminal networks participating in traffic of organs, tissues and cells (OTCs). The document has four parts: (i) A description of organ trafficking as an organized crime activity, (ii) an explanation of the main actors involved in transnational criminal networks trafficking OTC, (iii) a description of the usual operation these networks, and (iv) recent and relevant cases related to OTC trafficking.

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Diana Santos & Natalia Duarte

    Tuesday, June 20, 2017

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the social, economic and politic background of the countries involved in international networks of organ, tissues and cells trafficking, as well as some characteristics of this illegal activity. The first part of this document is focused on the general background characteristics of the criminal market of organs trafficking. The second part covers the main supplier countries by region. The third part includes conclusions about the criminal market.

    Annette Hübschle & Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Wednesday, May 31, 2017

    This paper provides a brief perspective of the Groenewald gang in the broader wildlife crime context before assessing whether the case presents an exception or a common trend. In a second step, the legislative and institutional loopholes are discussed. The paper also assesses whether regulators are aware of the scheme and what measures have been taken to address this. Finally, an assessment is made whether “gray” nodes (legal players who participate in illegal activities) are dealt within the most expedient manner and what lessons could be learned from the model.

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán, Charles Goredema & Khalil Goga

    Wednesday, May 31, 2017

    This document presents the model of a criminal network engaged in poaching and trafficking of rhino horn. After the exposition of the methodology and the most relevant concepts related to Social Network Analysis, the third part of the document includes information about the present case and the sources consulted for elaborating the model. In the fourth part the results informing about the characteristics of the criminal network are presented: (i) The types of agents, (ii) the types of interactions established, (iii) the agents with the highest capacity to arbitrate information in the network and (iv) the agents with the highest concentration of direct interactions. In the fifth part, conclusions are discussed.

    Khail Goga, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán & Charles Goredema

    Wednesday, May 31, 2017

    While rhino poaching has often been portrayed as a conflict between ‘dark’ and ‘bright’ agents, the reality of the trade is far more complex and compromises a host of actors in a variety of fields in legitimate and illegitimate spheres. As it is explained in this document, it is critical to understand the participation of agents operating within lawful public and private positions, who participate in various activities from the poaching to the final consumption and use of the rhino horn.

    Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán & Khalil Goga

    Wednesday, May 31, 2017

    The purpose of this descriptive document is to present relevant background information about South Africa and the criminal markets of rhino poaching and rhino horn traffic. The document consists of seven parts related to South Africa: (i) An introduction to relevant economic and political characteristics, (ii) relevant crime rates, (iii) an introduction to relevant characteristics of organized crime, (iv) a background and description of the rhino horn market, (v) an introduction to the police and enforcement agencies that investigate and prosecute rhino poaching and rhino horn traffic, (vi) statistics of arrests related to rhino poaching and (vii) a conclusion.

    No. 7. Babies Trafficking Networks on the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Estefanía López Guevara, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Monday, February 13, 2017

    This document is the Social Network Analysis applied to criminal structures involved in the market of child trafficking operating across various African countries. Besides presenting an explanation of the methodology applied for modeling the criminal network, the document includes a description of the operations carried out in the child trafficking market, and the main actors involved. It also presents the sources and cases that were modeled and analyzed, as well as the main characteristics of the specific criminal networks.

    No. 6. Introduction to Trafficking and Laundering of Children

    Estefanía López Guevara, Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán

    Monday, February 13, 2017

    This document provides an overview of contemporary trafficking in human beings, with specific focus on trafficking of children happening in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon and Ethiopia. For a background of the region and the main characteristics of the black market of babies in those countries, download the full report.

    Estefanía López Guevara & Eduardo Salcedo Albarán

    Friday, January 13, 2017

    This document is the analysis of a criminal network trafficking coltan, diamonds, arms, gold, and other minerals and commodities across the DRC and surrounding countries. The document has five parts: The first part is an introduction; the second part is a description of the methodology and the concepts related to Social Network Analysis, which is the methodological approach herein applied; the third part is a presentation of a criminal defined as a “coltan trafficking and elite network in DRC”, as well as the sources gathered and processed in this analysis; the fourth part is a presentation of the characteristics of the criminal structure, which includes a description of the types of nodes/agents, the interactions established, and the nodes/agents concentrating direct interactions and the capacity to arbitrate resources . The fifth part includes conclusions related to the characteristics of the analyzed network. 

    Alain Awazi, Alexis Muhima & Charles Goredema

    Friday, January 13, 2017

    The purpose of this short descriptive document is to present relevant background information about the Democratic Republic of the Congo (“DRC” or “DR Congo”) and the criminal or illegal exploitation of coltan and gold. The document consists of eight parts: The introductory first part is followed by a second part that includes a background on the DR Congo; the third part is a description of the socio-political and economic situation of the country; the fourth part includes relevant information regarding crimes and human rights violations in DRC; the fifth part is a description of trafficking in Kivu; the sixth part describes the situation of law enforcement around the exploitation; the seventh covers current and active mechanism for regulating the extraction and production of minerals and the eighth section presents some conclusions.

    Eduardo Salcedo Albarán & Estefanía López Guevara

    Friday, January 13, 2017

    The illegal mining of coltan takes place not only in Colombia, but also in the border region between Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. Unlicensed miners, supported by guerrillas and hidden by authorities from Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, exploit the mines and coerce indigenous peoples into mining labors in the Amazonas where it is presumed that there are deposits of columbite and tantalite inside native’s reserves or natural parks. Bearing this in mind, the purpose of this document is to describe the llegal mining and trafficking of coltan in the Amazon border region. The information is structured around the following topics and sections: (i) Key criminal agents relevant in trafficking of coltan, (ii) key criminal hotspots related to trafficking of coltan, (iii) and a description of recent relevant cases.

    Natalia Duarte & Estefanía López Guevara

    Friday, January 13, 2017

    The aim of this document is to present the social, economic and politic background of Colombia, as well as some characteristics of the legal and illegal markets of gold and Coltan. The document has four parts: The first one is a background to relevant characteristics of Colombia, the second part is an introduction to the characteristics of the extraction and trade of Gold in Colombia, the third section is a description of the exploitation and trade of Coltan in Colombia, and the final section includes some conclusions.

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